Aruch Arukh Hashalem Completum Alexander Kohut 9 Vol ×—× ×•×š ×™×”×•×“×” ×§××”×•×˜ ×¢×¨×•×š ×”×©×œ×
Aruch Completum Sive Lexicon Vocabula Et Res, Quae In Libris Targumicis, Talmudicis et Midraschicis Continentur , explicans auctore Nathane filio Jechielis saeculi XI. The rabbinic lexicon of Nathan ben Jechiel of Rome newly edited with supplementary notes and comments. Including Supplement and Additamenta. Very scholarly with Greek, Latin and Arabic references spelled out in their respective alphabets. This is the ultimate scholarly etymological reference and lexicon or dictionary in an in depth fashion to the Talmud and Midrashim reference Very scarce. See a contemporary review (1892) here https://www.jstor.org/stable/527204
Written by Alexander Kohut over many years of work. In his fifteenth year, while trying to decipher some foreign words in the Talmud with the aid of Landau's Dictionary, he conceived the plan of writing a complete lexicon of the Talmud, not having found the etymology of many words in Landau.
After finishing the gymnasium course in KecskemÃ©t, he removed to Budapest. Anxious to continue his rabbinical studies, he went to Breslau. In 1865, he received a call to the rabbinate of Tarnowitz, Upper Silesia. He then spent another year in Breslau, devoting his time to Oriental philology and Semitics. During the previous year he received his Ph.D. degree from the University of Leipzig, his dissertation being "Ueber die JÃ¼dische Angelogie und Daemonologie in Ihrer AbhÃ¤ngigkeit vom Parsismus." The essay was published by the Deutsche MorgenlÃ¤ndische Gesellschaft in 1866, it being the first Jewish work issued under the auspices of that society. He obtained his rabbinical diploma in 1867. It was in 1864 that he began to collect materials for a critical edition of the 'Aruk of Nathan ben Jehiel. In 1867 he was called to the rabbinate of SzÃ©kesfehÃ©rvÃ¡r, Hungary. Baron JÃ³zsef EÃ¶tvÃ¶s, the famous Hungarian poet and novelist, and afterward "Cultusminister," appointed him superintendent of all the schools in the county, this being the first time that such a position had been tendered to Ta Jew. The Congress of Jewish notables held in Budapest in 1868 appointed Kohut its secretary. Notable among his literary labors falling in this period is his study entitled "Etwas Ã¼ber die Moral und Abfassungszeit des Buches Tobias," originally published in Geiger's JÃ¼d. Zeit. vol. x., several monographs in the Z. D. M. G. which developed his original thesis concerning Persian influence on Judaism, and his "Kritische Beleuchtung der Persischen Pentateuch-Uebersetzung des Jakob ben Joseph Tavus" (Leipzig, 1871). Among his literary remains are to be found materials for a critical edition of the Persian text of this version. In 1872 he was elected chief rabbi of PÃ©cs, Hungary, remaining there eight years. By this time his reputation as a Hungarian orator had spread so far that many noted statesmen and church dignitaries came to hear him from distant towns.
About 1873 Kohut began to compile his Dictionary of the Talmud, entirely in German, encouraged by the promise of a Christian nobleman to bear all costs of publication. He had proceeded as far as the third letter of the alphabet when he found that the work was assuming such gigantic proportions as to preclude the possibility of its being confined within the projected limits. Arduous as the merely mechanical labor of copying the manuscript was, he rewrote what he had written, intending to publish the original text of the old 'Aruk, with a German commentary. On the advice of Leopold Zunz and Salomon Buber, however, who argued that the 'Aruk, being a national classic, ought to be compiled in Hebrew throughout, he again rewrote the work in that language, the labor of copying occupying two more years. It is this trait of untiring patience, which scorned all obstacles, that made the publication of vol. I, in 1878, possible. His Maecenas, in the meantime, had died, and Kohut was left to bear the burden of expense alone, save for the subvention of the Academy of Sciences in Vienna and of the Cultusministerium in Berlin.
He called his work Aruch Completum or 'Aruk ha-Shalem, and its production occupied twenty-five years of his life. The first four volumes were printed during his residence in Hungary, and the last four during his sojourn in America, covering a period of fourteen years (Vienna, 1878-92); the supplement appearing from a New York press; and the whole work aggregating more than 4,000 double-column pages. Seven manuscripts of the 'Aruk were used by the editor in determining the etymology of the words, and countless doubtful and corrupted passages in the Talmud were thus corrected and restored. Kohut identified in an elaborate special study (printed in the supplement) the often unacknowledged sources of Nathan ben Jehiel's information, though everywhere defending him against the charge of plagiarism. The Arukh has been justly characterized as one of the monuments of Hebrew literature.
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